Vital pulpotomy is normally carried out on primary tooth with extensive caries. Pulpotomy may also be performed on permanent teeth as well.
The normal tooth have a space inside the tooth called pulp chamber. Pulp chamber in the coronal region of the tooth is filled with soft tissues like nerves, blood vessels and pink connective tissues. These soft tissues continues to the root portion of the tooth and is connected to the nerves below the tooth. The blood vessels and nerve from root to the pulp chamber keep the tooth healthy and active.
When decay or caries reach the pulp chamber, bacteria causes the tooth to have pain or swelling.
When caries or decay is removed from a tooth and results in pulp exposure in the pulp chamber, the tooth structure cannot be filled without treating the bacteria in the pulp chamber. By removing only the coronal region of pulp and treating with medication to keep the pulp below it from infection, the tooth can be protected. This process of removing to diseased portion of the pulp without removing the radicular portion, with the intent of maintaining the vitality of the remaining pulp tissues, and treating the remaining pulp with the placement of medication, is called pulpotomy.
After pulpotomy the cavity is filled or a stainless steel crown is placed over the tooth.